Building and technical trade

"Our strategic objective is growth and a strengthened market position in Europe. We are strongly developing our digital services and taking advantage of synergies for the benefit of our customers."

Terho Kalliokoski, EVP, President of the building and technical trade division

Kesko's building and technical trade division offers its consumer and business customers comprehensive selections of building and home improvement products, as well as electrical and HEPAC products, the most comprehensive store network in Northern Europe, online stores and digital services. The division also includes business operations of the furniture trade, the agricultural and machinery trade, and the leisure goods trade.

The building and technical trade has operations in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Belarus. At the end of 2016, the division had 15,630 personnel.

In the building and technical trade, Kesko is the market leader in Finland and in the building and home improvement trade, the fifth biggest operator in Europe. The acquisition of Onninen, completed in June 2016, makes Kesko a significant operator on the Northern European technical wholesale market. The unique combination of the building and technical trade enables us to offer business customers in the building sector the most diverse entity of products and related services on the market.

In the building and technical trade, Kesko is the market leader in Finland and in the building and home improvement trade, the fifth biggest operator in Europe.

The chains in the building and home improvement trade are K-Rauta, Byggmakker, K-Senukai and OMA.  Rautakesko B2B Service serves major business customers in the building and home improvement trade in Finland. Onninen delivers products and service packages to contractors, industry and infrastructure as well as retail dealer customers. In all, there are around 140 Onninen Express stores and Onninen points of sale. 

Approximately 65% of sales in the building and technical trade come from B2B customers. 

The building and home improvement trade operations in the Baltic countries and Belarus were centralised at Kesko Senukai as the result of an arrangement carried out in April 2016, enabling them to be managed as a single entity. Kesko Senukai is the clear market leader in the region, and major growth potential is foreseeable in its business.

The building of the new K-Rauta chain began in June when the decision was taken to combine the K-Rauta and Rautia chains to form Finland's largest building and home improvement trade chain and also to update the K-Rauta brand. The K-Rauta brand will be revamped in all of the operating countries in phases.

The own brands of the building and home improvement trade – Cello, PROF, FXA and Fiorin – offer customers reliable and inexpensive home and garden products, as well as building and renovation tools. Among Onninen's own brands, Onnline offers electrical, HEPAC and refrigeration products for B2B customers. The electrical and HVAC products under the OPAL brand are primarily designed for B2C customers.

Combining the K-Rauta and Rautia chains to create a new K-Rauta chain with a new brand.

In addition to online stores, the furniture trade chains Asko and Sotka serve their customers with 86 physical stores in Finland and 10 in Estonia. 

The agricultural and machinery trade consists of the K-maatalous retailer business function in Finland and the Konekesko machinery sales functions in the Baltic countries in addition to Finland.

The chains in the leisure goods trade are Intersport, Budget Sport, The Athlete’s Foot and Kookenkä. Intersport Finland Ltd with its chains is Finland's market leader in the sports trade. The chains are part of the international Intersport chain, which nowadays operates in 66 countries on six continents. The Athlete’s Foot, a new chain in Finland, began operating in 2016 with a focus on athletic leisure footwear. Kenkäkesko Ltd is the chain unit for the Kookenkä stores.

In addition to the extensive network of store sites, all of the leisure goods chains have their own websites and online stores, which are constantly increasing in importance in the retail trade.

in Action:
K-Rauta Renovation Master for successful renovation projects

Consumers today are less often doing building and renovation projects themselves. Instead they outsource the projects to professionals. The reasons are many: building and renovation are getting more and more technical, in addition to increased regulation. And as societies age and become wealthier, services are used more. K-Rauta’s surveys reveal that customers may have doubts about renovation – they are unsure about the costs and what it involves in practice. The K-Rauta Renovation Master service concept provides the solution.

The K-Rauta Renovation Master helps the consumer customer succeed in their renovation projects from planning to completion. During autumn 2016, this multichannel service concept was tested in kitchen renovations at two K-Rauta stores and content related to kitchen renovation and inspiring planning programmes were provided online.

The service concept has been designed to help customers with renovation projects. Its current offering includes Cello kitchens on a turnkey basis.

The digital services have been integrated into the customer’s journey from web to store.

Customers interested in kitchen renovation can get information online on, for example, what a kitchen renovation project involves and the things to take into account at the planning stage. The web content offers a comprehensive package of information for anyone dreaming of a kitchen renovation. Find out more here: (in Finnish).

In the store, the customer finds an active kitchen salesperson whose main priority is to make the customer’s dream of a new kitchen come true according to the customer’s needs, wishes and other conditions.

Customer-facing screens displaying the entire kitchen renovation process from start to finish have been tested at the stores. The screens are also a useful tool for the salesperson to illustrate the renovation process to the customer. The customer can also see the new kitchen planned for them virtually through 3D VR glasses.

Customers who have purchased a kitchen renovation will get a renovation project management app on their phones. The application keeps the customers informed of the renovation progress step by step and allows them to send messages to communicate with the salesperson and to read all the renovation related documents.

The kitchen salesperson acts as the Renovation Master in the customer’s kitchen renovation project, which means taking care that the project advances according to plan, and communicating with the customer and the contractor.

”The first experiences of the pilots are encouraging. I’m convinced that we will be able to improve the satisfaction of renovation customers and we aim to provide an excellent renovation experience. The K-Rauta Renovation Master concept will be deployed and developed further in 2017, allowing us to offer our customers solutions for the renovation of all room spaces,” says Sari Hujanen, Development Director of Consumer and project customer sales development, building and technical trade division.

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Stakeholder address:
Long-established cooperation between Caverion and Onninen is based on high-quality operations and competitiveness

Cooperation between Caverion and Onninen dates back decades and continues today. Caverion’s purchasing needs range from large, extended orders to small, daily purchases. Onninen was chosen as partner on the basis of their competitiveness and high quality operation.

Caverion designs, builds, operates and maintains user-friendly and energy-efficient technical solutions for properties and industry. In my job as a Purchasing Manager I’m responsible for purchases for building sites and maintenance targets in Finland. A fleet of over 800 service vans and 4,600 employees in different parts of the country are indicators of the scope of our operations.

Depending on the project at hand, our purchasing needs vary, ranging from large, extended orders to small, daily purchases from business partners.

We use the services of Onninen's Contractors Unit and Industry Unit and the Onninen Express stores. We have operations all over Finland and the fact that we are able to source products locally is a great advantage; we make hundreds of collections from Onninen Express stores every day. It is important to us that our partner has a comprehensive network with an extensive offering of goods. In addition to local operations, we have another level of collaboration: Onninen’s sales unit for large-scale customers serves Caverion’s centralized decision-making. Our organisations work well together.

Process efficiency is important to us. Caverion receives 400,000 invoices a year, which is why ordering goods from our business partners must be easy, invoice information must be accurate and invoices must be sent in a way that suits us.

Reliability, competitiveness and an extensive operating network are important criteria  when we choose our business partners. We chose Onninen on the basis of their competitiveness and high-quality operations and we have been very satisfied.

Onninen was our main business partner in 2016. The roots of both of our companies go back more than 100 years and our cooperation started decades ago. The fact that Onninen is now part of Kesko Group makes Onninen even more attractive to us and strengthens our opportunities for collaboration even further. We are confident that the acquisition has expanded Onninen’s service selection and operating network.

Pekka Björkman, Purchasing Manager, Caverion

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Strategic focus areas

Strategic objective

What we are doing

  • Growing into an increasingly significant operator in Europe, with the Nordic and the Baltic countries as the most natural growth areas. Improving profitability and organic growth are the priority areas.

  • The acquisition of Onninen creates an excellent platform for the profitable growth of Kesko’s building and technical trade in Finland and the rest of Europe. To accelerate the implementation of the strategy, the building and technical trade was organised in four business units: business to business customers B2B, business to consumer customers B2C, international operations and Finland, all of which are supported by the common functions.
  • Providing better service to the common customers in the building and technical trade and exploiting potential synergies
  • We serve our common customers with an expanded product selection and easier shopping. We exploit synergies especially in sourcing, logistics, store sites and ICT solutions.
  • Continuing profitable growth in the Baltic countries and Belarus targeting €1 billion in terms of net sales in the next few years
  • The Kesko Senukai entity enables efficient management. The plans include modernising the entire store network and converting it into the K-Senukai concept in the Baltic countries, as well as €100 million of capital expenditure in new stores by 2020. The stores in Riga and Tallinn are ready for the modernisation work to begin.
  • In Finland, we will strengthen our market position and profitability
  • We combine the K-Rauta and Rautia chains into a single new K-Rauta chain with a new brand image
  • New
  • We expand the Onninen Express network
  • A common online store solution for the B2B customers of the building and home improvement trade and Onninen
  • We develop services for renovation customers, e.g. the Renovation Master concept
  • In Sweden and Norway, we will continue to improve profitability and seek profitable growth
  • We build a country-specific business entity for the building and technical trade between Onninen and the building and home improvement store chains
  • Increasing the value of the furniture trade, the sports trade, the agricultural trade, the machinery trade and the shoe trade

  • We increase the value of business operations, develop the competitiveness of chains and leverage synergies


Competitive advantages of the building and technical trade

  • Chain concepts and service entities based on customer needs
  • Ability to serve different customer groups from the same store network
  • Comprehensive store network and extensive electronic services
  • Efficient combination of online stores and traditional store network
  • Professional customer service in-store and in electronic channels
  • Well known, reliable store chains and product brands
  • Efficient procurement and logistics
  • Internationally harmonised operating models

Chains of the building and technical trade


The international K-Rauta offers products and services for building, renovation, yard and garden, interior decoration and home furnishing to consumer customers, project customers and business customers. There are K-Rauta stores in Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Russia. In Finland, all K-Rauta stores are run by retailer entrepreneurs.


Byggmakker is one of the leading operators in the building and home improvement trade in Norway. It offers a store network covering the entire country and very strong B2B expertise. Nearly all Byggmakker stores operate on the retailer business model.


K-Senukai's stores offer extensive non-food product selections to their customers in Lithuania, with a focus on products related to building and living. The K-Rauta stores in Latvia and Estonia will also be refurbished under the K-Senukai concept by 2020.


OMA is the largest building and home improvement store chain in Belarus.

Rautakesko B2B Service

The customers of Rautakesko B2B Service are national and large regional building firms, property maintenance companies, the housing industry and other business customers. The strengths of B2B Service are the extensive selections of building and home improvement products and close collaboration with the K-Rauta store network, through which all of the warehouse deliveries take place.


Onninen Express chain's stores serve business customers. Onninen delivers products and service packages to contractors, industry, infrastructure building and retail dealers. The stores' selection includes HVAC, electrical and refrigeration products as well as other technical products. Customers can collect products for their daily needs from the Onninen Express stores' selection. They can also order products from the warehouse selection for collection from the store. In all, there are around 140 Onninen Express stores and Onninen points of sale Finland, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia.

The Elfin chain operations include around 190 independent electrical contractors with which Onninen collaborates across Finland.

The Hanakat chain is a retail network comprising around 80 independent HEPAC entrepreneurs in Finland.

The Elfag chain is one of Norway’s biggest electrical contractor chains including around 150 business members.

Chains of the agricultural and machinery trade


In Finland, agricultural customers are served by a comprehensive network of K-maatalous stores. K-maatalous retailers’ customers include agricultural entrepreneurs, machinery contractors, and equestrian professionals and enthusiasts.


Konekesko is a machinery trade company that focuses on importing, selling and providing after-sales services for construction, materials handling, environmental and agricultural machinery, and recreational machinery. Konekesko operates in Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.


Chains of the leisure goods trade


Intersport is Finland's market leader in the sports trade. Together with retailer entrepreneurs, it employs almost 1,000 people in 57 stores and one online store. The chain's success is based on extensive selections of sports and leisure products, good service, high-quality products, diverse maintenance services and on providing an expert shopping experience, both in-store and online.

Budget Sport,

There are ten Budget Sport stores in different parts of Finland. The stores aim to provide their customers with sports trade products more quickly, easily and inexpensively than their competitors. A diverse online store complements the customer experience.

The Athlete’s Foot,

The Athlete’s Foot is a retailer of sporty leisure footwear, trainers and clothing. The chain represents the world's best known sports goods brands and models, and it aims to promote its customers' passion for sport and bring a touch of style into their lives.


Kookenkä is Finland’s largest shoe store chain for the whole family. The chain's 37 stores and online store cover the entire country.


Chains of the furniture trade


Asko is the best known and most trusted Finnish furniture and interior decoration brand. Asko provides quality-consciouscustomers with a competitive collection and the most active and reliable service in the sector. Asko has stores and online stores in Finland and Estonia.


Sotka is a Finnish provider of furniture and a home decoration company full of pleasant surprises. It offers solutions suited to the changing needs of its customers. Sotka has stores and an online store in Finland and Estonia.


The building and home improvement trade market by country, along with the change from the previous year (retail trade, VAT 0%)

The total market in the entire operating area of the building and home improvement trade is worth around €22 billion*
Finland €3.1 billion (1.5%), (RaSi ry, Finnish Hardware Association, DIY)
Sweden €4.2 billion (4.4%), (HUI)
Norway €4.0 billion (4.8%), (Virke)
Estonia €0.4 billion (8.1%)*
Latvia €0.4 billion (1.9%)*
Lithuania €0.5 billion (2.6%)*
Russia €8.3 billion (1%)*
Belarus €1.1 billion (10%)*

The market of Onninen by country, along with the change from the previous year (retail trade, VAT 0%)

Finland €2.0 billion (4.7%), (STK, LVI-TEK)
Sweden €3.5 billion (6.0%), (SEG, RGF)
Norway €1.3 billion (3.6%), (EFO)
Poland €4.4 billion (-5%)*
Estonia €0.3 billion (6.2%)*
Latvia €0.3 billion (-15.6%)*
Lithuania €0.4 billion (1.2%)*

The agricultural and machinery trade market, along with the change from the previous year (retail trade, VAT 0%)

The agricultural trade market is worth around €1.9 billion and decreased slightly from the previous year. In Finland, the total market for Konekesko’s product areas is around €0.9 billion and it decreased slightly from the previous year. In the Baltic countries, the total market for Konekesko's product areas is around €0.6 billion and it increased clearly from the previous year.*

The leisure goods market in Finland, along with the change from the previous year (retail trade, VAT 0%)

The sports trade is worth around €0.9 billion (3.6%), (Statistics Finland)
The shoe trade is worth around €0.3 billion (2.3%), (Textile and Fashion Suppliers and Retailers Finland TMA and Kesko’s own estimate)

The furniture trade market in Finland, along wiht the change from the previous year (retail trade, VAT 0%)

The interior decoration items and furniture trade is worth around € 1.5 billion (1.8%) (Statistics Finland)

* Kesko’s own estimate

Market shares

Building and home improvement trade 

Finland 41% (RaSi ry, Finnish Hardware Association, DIY). Main competitors: STARK, S Group and Bauhaus
Sweden 5% (HUI and Kesko's own estimate). Main competitors: Woody, XL Bygg, Beijer and Bauhaus 
Norway 16% (Virke and Kesko’s own estimate). Main competitors: Optimera/Monter, Mestergruppen, Coop and Maxbo
Estonia 24%*. Main competitors: Ehitus ABC, Bauhof, Espak and Bauhaus
Latvia 11%*. Main competitors: Depo DIY and Kursi
Lithuania 30%*. Main competitors: Ermitazas, Moki-Vezi and Lytarga 
Russia 2%*. Main competitors: Leroy Merlin, OBI, Castorama, Maxidom and Petrovich
Belarus 10%*. Main competitors: Mile, Materik and Praktik


Finland 37% (STK, LVI-TEK). Main competitors: LVI Dahl, Ahlsell, SLO and Rexel
Sweden 6% (SEG, RGF). Main competitors: Ahlsell, Dahl, Elektroskandia ja Rexel
Norway 20% (EFO). Main competitors: Elektroskandia, Solar and Ahlsell
Poland 5%*. Main competitors: TIM, Sonepar, Grodno, Bims, Tadmar (Saint-Gobain) and Grudnik
Estonia 13%*. Main competitors: FEB (Ahlsell), SLO and W.E.G (Würth)
Latvia 4%*. Main competitors: Sanistal, EVA-SAT and SLO
Lithuania 4%*. Main competitors: Sanistal, Dahlgera (Dahl) and Elektrobalt (Würth)

Agricultural trade

Finland 27%*. Main competitors: Danish Agro (Hankkija Oy), Turun Konekeskus and Raisioagro

Machinery trade

Finland (source: Trafi)
Outboard motors** 45% (Yamaha)
Boats** 23% (Yamarin, Suvi)
Motorcycles** 23% (Yamaha)
Tractors** 10% (Massey Ferguson)
Light < 750 kg transportation trailers 15% (Muuli)

** To be registered

Baltic countries 19% (Kesko’s own estimate)

Sports trade

Intersport, Budget Sport, The Athlete's Foot and Kesport
Finland 30% (Statistics Finland and Kesko's own estimate). Competitors: Stadium, XXL, Sportia, Top Sport 

Shoe trade

Kookenkä and Kenkäexpertti
Finland 10%*. Competitors: other speciality stores, department stores, hypermarkets, sports stores and online stores

Furniture trade

Asko and Sotka
Finland 23%*. Competitors: IKEA, JYSK, Masku and Isku

* Kesko’s own estimate


Did you know?

Onninen is one of the leading suppliers and service providers for technical building contractors, industry, infrastructure building and retail dealer customers in the Baltic Sea area and Scandinavia. The selection covers heating, plumbing and energy solutions, bathroom and kitchen products, ventilation products, cooling and refrigeration products for air-conditioning, electrical installation accessories, lighting, cables and wiring accessories, products for civil engineering, process piping and steel and metal products, power transmission products and lubricants, tools, fasteners, products for personal protection and telecommunications products. The selection consists of over 500,000 products and varies according to country. In all, there are around 140 Onninen Express stores and Onninen points of sale in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia.

Read more about Onninen

in Action:
Onninen Norway offers solutions for welfare technology

As the population ages, technology must be able to respond to the challenges faced by the elderly. How can people live safely and longer in their own homes despite illness and old age? How can this be supported? Onninen Norway wanted to respond to the challenges we face in our society today and to enquiries of its customers and suppliers and see what they could do about this.

Photo: Gira and Micro Matic.

“Welfare technology offers solutions that allow people to live safely and longer in their homes,” says Ann-Katrin Pedersen, Marketing Manager at Onninen Norway. “We can offer a wide range of solutions which contains both surveillance and alarm systems, sensors and management systems for both heating and lighting. These solutions are meant to make people feel safer at home and free up time for caretakers and employees, by simplifying processes and practical tasks. Welfare technology will give more time to care, conversation and human contact,” she adds.

Onninen Norway offers solutions to companies and municipalities. The end customer base includes the public sector and private consumers, all served by Onninen’s business customers. Solutions for welfare technology are available for all Onninen’s customers via the company’s online shop Consumer customers are served through Onninen works in cooperation with Elfag, which is one of the largest chains of electrical contractors in Norway.

Solutions within welfare technology are under development and being improved constantly, so that customers can easily find the solutions they need. Onninen Norway's head office in Oslo includes a showroom where welfare technology products and solutions within a smart house are demonstrated. The showroom is open for all Onninen business customers and their customers.

“In fact, we have already offered these products and solutions for a long time. Now, we have added new solutions and combinations to our assortment, so that end customers can easily find what they need. We want to be involved in the development of welfare technology,” Pedersen says.

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in Action:
The Liiteri trial was a way of testing consumers' willingness to rent K-Rauta's tools

A tool rental service named "Liiteri" enabled city dwellers to rent selected K-Rauta tools online, and collect them from a 24-hour service point set up in the Teurastamo area in Helsinki or order environmentally friendly PiggyBaggy home delivery. The results of the trial demonstrate that there is a demand for rental services.

K-Rauta was a partner in a trial targeted at urban home-improvers able to rent high-quality battery-powered Ryobi tools and Kärcher cleaning devices and machines online using the service and collect them from the Liiteri service point, which is open 24 hours a day in Helsinki's Teurastamo area, which has good public transport links.

The circular economy thinking is based on a model where materials and value circulate, and added value is created through services and by utilising technology. In Finland and elsewhere, cleantech and the circular economy have traditionally focused more on optimising industrial processes and less on developing solutions for consumers.

K-Rauta wanted to carry out a trial to learn how it could better offer overall solutions for its customers' everyday lives.

"At K-Rauta, we have traditionally thought that our job is to sell as many new machines and devices as possible. But perhaps not all of our customers want to buy all of the tools they need for their home improvement projects. They may not have space to store tools, and they may not have much need for the tools when the renovation is finished. Being able to rent tools may provide the necessary spark to get a home-improvement project going, and we at K-Rauta can play a role in helping to plan renovations and selling materials. It has been interesting to see that this type of rental service interests people," says Virpi Viinikainen, Kesko's Vice President for B2C trade in the building and technical trade.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd conducted an interview survey related to the trial, revealing that saving space and money are considered the most important reasons for using the service. It was considered worthwhile to rent tools that are not used frequently. Product availability was seen as a challenge, while the rental price, collection and return were considered limiting factors.   

"The trial was a success and consumers took an open-minded and enthusiastic approach to testing an entirely new circular economy service entity. The result was enabled by the successful social communication of the partners involved in the trial. It was encouraging that good feedback was provided for the usability experience in the very first phase, even though it had still not been fine-tuned," says Harri Paloheimo, CEO of CoReorient.

"The results are also interesting from K-Rauta's point of view, and they show that there is a demand for rental services, at least in urban environments. We will evaluate our own service development on the basis of the results we have obtained. The trial was definitely a positive thing," says Viinikainen.

Liiteri conducted a successful crowdfunding campaign to continue the Liiteri point at Teurastamo. K-Rauta will continue to act as the corporate financier of the next phase of the trial at the Teurastamo Liiteri service point.

With the help of the successful crowdfunding campaign, CoReorient, the company that provides the Liiteri service, has set itself the target of developing Liiteri's usability, offering and content in 2017. The operations will continue in the Teurastamo and Kalasatama areas of Helsinki. In addition, Liiteri will be expanded and modernised within the scope of the available resources. Negotiations are underway to commence operations also in other cities. Depending on the case at hand, the implementation will be based on Liiteri smart containers or located in existing premises.

The Liiteri point in the Teurastamo area was realised by the IT start-up CoReorient Oy in collaboration with VTT, SYKE and the University of Helsinki's Tekes-financed AARRE research project, as well as the commercial partners involved in the trial.

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Building and technical trade in figures
Number Sales (VAT 0%),
€ million
Retail sales and number of stores 2016 2015 2016 2015
K-Rauta* 46 45 582 567
Rautia* 93 93 430 427
Rautakesko B2B Service - - 225 192
Onninen, Finland 50 - 481 -
Asko* 35 34 98 94
Sotka* 53 53 97 94
Intersport* 58 60 192 194
Budget Sport* 11 11 48 46
The Athlete’s Foot 3 - 1 -
Kookenkä* 38 38 32 32
K-maatalous** 78 80 424 437
Konekesko, Finland 0 1 144 154
Others*** 34 45 18 85
Finland, total 499 460 2,770 2,322
K-Rauta, Sweden 20 20 217 209
Onninen, Sweden 17 - 138 -
Byggmakker, Norway 80 88 659 669
Onninen, Norway 26 - 169 -
Other Nordic countries, total 143 108 1,183 878
K-Senukai, Lithuania 22 20 357 328
Asko and Sotka, Estonia* 12 10 10 9
K-Rauta, Estonia 8 8 92 87
K-Rauta and K-Senukai, Latvia 8 8 48 52
Onninen, Baltic countries 15 - 39 -
Konekesko, Estonia - - 46 40
Konekesko, Latvia - - 35 38
Konekesko, Lithuania - - 50 38
Baltic countries, total 65 46 677 592
K-Rauta, Russia 13 13 174 192
Onninen, Russia - - 2 -
OMA, Belarus 16 12 101 116
Onninen, Poland 36 - 114 -
Intersport, Russia - 18 7 12
Russia, Belarus and Poland total 65 43 399 320
Building and technical trade, outside Finland, total 273 197 2,258 1,790
Building and technical trade, total 772 657 5,028 4,112
* Incl. online sales
** In 2016, 39 Rautia stores also operated as K-maatalous stores. In 2015, 45 Rautia stores also operated as K-maatalous stores
*** The figures include 11 (16) Kenkäexpertti stores, 23 (25) Kesport stores and 3 Athlete's foot stores. In 2015 figures included 4 Musta Pörssi stores
Building and technical trade, key figures 2016 2015
Net sales € million 4,100 3,250
Operating profit € million 60.8 -57.2
Comparable operating profit € million 97.9 63.6
Comparable operating profit as percentage of net sales % 2.4 2.0
Capital expenditure € million 452 55
Capital employed, average € million 1,000 823
Comparable return on capital employed % 9.8 7.7
Personnel average 12,744 11,269
Properties 2016 2015
Owned properties, capital € million 342 357
Owned properties, area 1,000 m2 421 404
Leased properties, lease liabilities € million 791 672
Leased properties, area 1,000 m2 1,251 1,014